Guide Prepared by Michael J. Cummings...©
Picture of Dorian Gray is a novel that combines elements of Gothic
horror with satire and tragedy. Let us consider these elements one at a
the work is not a true Gothic novel in the manner of the books of Horace
Walpole and the Brontë sisters, it does contain characteristics of
many Gothic novels, such as the suggestion of a supernatural presence,
darkness and rain, murder and suicide, characters with mysterious pasts,
and a secret room (the “old schoolroom"). The Gothic atmosphere of the
novel even manifests itself in the brightness of a cheerful day, as the
following passage in Chapter 14—describing events on the morning after
Dorian's murder of Basil Hallward—demonstrates:
he opened his eyes a faint smile passed across his lips, as though he had
been lost in some delightful dream. Yet he had not dreamed at all. His
night had been untroubled by any images of pleasure or of pain. But youth
smiles without any reason. It is one of its chiefest charms.
turned round, and leaning upon his elbow, began to sip his chocolate. The
mellow November sun came streaming into the room. The sky was bright, and
there was a genial warmth in the air. It was almost like a morning in May.
the events of the preceding night crept with silent, blood-stained feet
into his brain and reconstructed themselves there with terrible distinctness.
He winced at the memory of all that he had suffered, and for a moment the
same curious feeling of loathing for Basil Hallward that had made him kill
him as he sat in the chair came back to him, and he grew cold with passion.
The dead man was still sitting there, too, and in the sunlight now. How
horrible that was! Such hideous things were for the darkness, not for the
novel satirizes Victorian aristocrats. First, it ridicules them for having
little more to do than gossip, attend parties, and dabble in the arts.
They live on inherited wealth and/or on enterprises sustained by the underclass.
Lord Fermor, for one, derives income from his Midlands collieries (coal-mining
operations). He regards this “taint of industry" as excusable because it
provides money for him to burn wood in his fireplace. Second, the novel
ridicules these same aristocrats for prizing appearances over substance.
They assay a person’s worth on his looks, his money, his social status.
For example, Lord Kelso disdains his daughter’s husband because he is a
lowly subaltern in the military. On the other hand, Wotton and Hallward
extol Dorian Gray primarily for his physical qualities. Late in the novel,
after Dorian descends into depravity and tongues wag against him, he continues
to move in the highest social circles because of his money and unchanged
novel can be regarded as a tragedy in that the protagonist, Dorian Gray,
suffers a downfall and dies because of a flaw in his character—inordinate
pride, or hubris—about his physical appearance.
Wilde published The Picture of Dorian Gray in Lippincott's Monthly
Magazine in 1890, then revised and published it in book form in 1891.
In the latter version (the one sold in bookstores today), Wilde added a
preface and six chapters; he also moderated references to implied sexuality.
Many critics condemned the novel as scandalous even though it clearly demonstrates
the pernicious effects of immoral behavior.
action takes place in London, England, in the late nineteenth century.
The narration also says Dorian Gray spent time at a villa in Trouville,
at a house in Algiers, and at a house he maintained in Nottinghamshire.
Dorian Gray Young
man with extraordinary good looks. Orphaned as an infant, he was brought
up by his wealthy grandfather, who despised Dorian. Dorian inherits a great
deal of money when he comes of age. On the surface, he seems a decent fellow
at first, although he no doubt suffers psychological problems rooted in
his upbringing. Under the influence of Lord Henry Wotton, Dorian slips
into a life of dissolution and scandalous behavior.
Lord Henry Wotton Corrupt
aristocrat who smokes opium-tainted cigarettes, reads scandalous books,
and generally pursues a life of pleasure. Enthralled with Dorian because
of his remarkable looks, which remind him of ancient Greek works of art,
he introduces Dorian to perverse pleasures. Wotton is ten years older than
Basil Hallward Artist
who paints a full-length portrait of Dorian Gray. It is the best work he
has ever done, he says, because Dorian and his looks inspired him to pour
all of his talent into the painting. He wants to keep the portrait rather
than exhibiting it, then decides to give it to Dorian. Hallward is genuinely
concerned about Dorian’s welfare. After Dorian falls into his shameful
lifestyle, Hallward implores him to reform his ways—and incurs Dorian’s
Sybil Vane Young,
beautiful, impoverished Shakespearean actress who falls in love with Dorian,
whom she calls "Prince Charming." When he ends their relationship, he breaks
Mrs. Vane Mother
of Sybil. Mrs. Vane, also an actress, plays the part of Lady Capulet in
Vane Brother of Sybil. Deeply concerned about his sister’s welfare,
he is suspicious of Dorian Gray’s attentions to her. Many years after Sybil's
death, he tracks Dorian down.
Mother of Dorian Gray. Although she does not appear as a living character
in the novel—she died before the action in the novel begins—references
to her and her background are important. Margaret was a woman of exceptional
beauty with a substantial inheritance and, therefore, extremely popular
with men. However, she ran off with a penniless foot soldier. He was killed
in a duel by a thug hired by her father, Lord Kelso.
Lord Kelso Dorian
Gray’s wealthy maternal grandfather. After the death of Dorian's mother,
he takes Dorian into his home even though he despises the boy because he
reminds him of his daughter and her marriage to a no-account soldier.
Lord George Fermor
Lord Henry Wotton’s uncle. He provides Wotton key background information
about Dorian Gray.
Mr. Isaacs Manager
of the theatre where Sybil Vane acts. Dorian despises him, apparently because
he is a Jew, and thinks of him as a Caliban (a beast-man in Shakespeare’s
Tempest). Isaacs provides Mrs. Vane money to help the family pay its
Alan Campbell Acquaintance
of Dorian Gray. Campbell, who has studied chemistry, dissolves the body
of Dorian's murder victim, Basil Hallward, after Gray threatens to disclose
a secret that would embarrass Campbell.
An acquaintance of Dorian. He is one of the young men befriended and ruined
by their contact with Dorian. None of Adrian’s friends will speak to him
any more. Dorian encounters him in an opium den.
Lady Agatha: Lord Henry's
aunt, who hosts him and others--including Dorian Gray--at a luncheon.
Duchess of Harley: Woman
who attends Lady Agatha's luncheon.
Sir Thomas Burdon: Radical
member of Parliament and a guest at Lady Agatha's.
Mr. Erskine: Charming older
gentlemen who tends to remain silent at social affairs, explaining that
he had already said everything he had to say before he reached age thirty.
Mrs. Vandeleur: Friend of
Lady Agatha. Mrs. Vandeleur dresses like "a badly bound hymn-book."
Lord Faudel: "Mediocre"
middle-aged man who is a guest at Lady Agatha's luncheon.
Duke of Berwick:
On one occasion, when Dorian Gray entered a room in a men's club, the duke
rose and left because he did not wish to associate with the young man.
Lady Brandon Society
hostess who introduces Hallward to Dorian Gray.
Mr. Hubbard Frame-maker
who, with an assistant, helps Dorian move the portrait upstairs, where
visitors will not be able to see the mysterious changes in it.
Hetty Merton Beautiful
country girl Dorian decides to spare from corruption.
Mrs. Leaf Dorian
Victoria Wotton Lord
Henry's wife. In time, she leaves him.
Duchess of Harley:
Various Lords, Ladies,
Servants, Footmen, Hansom Driver
tells the story in omniscient third-person point of view, enabling him
to reveal the thoughts of his characters, as in the following Chapter 2
passage centering on Lord Henry Wotton:
With his subtle
smile, Lord Henry watched him [Dorian Gray]. He knew the precise psychological
moment when to say nothing. He felt intensely interested. He was amazed
at the sudden impression that his words had produced, and, remembering
a book that he had read when he was sixteen, a book which had revealed
to him much that he had not known before, he wondered whether Dorian Gray
was passing through a similar experience. He had merely shot an arrow into
the air. Had it hit the mark? How fascinating the lad was!Plot
Michael J. Cummings...©
his London studio on a pleasant summer day, artist Basil Hallward assesses
a painting on an easel in the middle of the room. It is his life-sized
portrait of an extraordinarily handsome young man named Dorian Gray. With
Hallward is Lord Henry Wotton, a witty and cynical friend. Wafting in from
the garden through an open door is the scent of flowers to compete with
the smoke from Wotton’s cigarette, which is tainted with opium.
declares that the portrait is the best painting Hallward has ever done
and suggests that he submit it for display at the Grosvenor. But Hallward
says he has put so much of himself into the painting that he plans to keep
portrait that is painted with feeling is a portrait of the artist, not
of the sitter," Hallward explains. “The sitter is merely the accident,
the occasion. It is not he who is revealed by the painter; it is rather
the painter who, on the coloured canvas, reveals himself. The reason I
will not exhibit this picture is that I am afraid that I have shown in
it the secret of my own soul."
had met Gray at the home of society hostess Lady Brandon. There, while
dowagers, academicians and other lofty personages stood around conversing,
Hallward’s gaze met Gray’s, and the experience had an unsettling effect
on the painter.
knew that I had come face to face with some one whose mere personality
was so fascinating that, if I allowed it to do so, it would absorb my whole
nature, my whole soul, my very art itself," Hallward tells Wotton.
Brandon introduced Gray to Hallward, and the two men immediately became
is eager to meet Gray. While he and Hallward are in the garden discussing
him, Gray enters the studio and sits down at a piano, leafing through the
sheet music of a Schumann piece. When Hallward and Wotton come in, Hallward
introduces Wotton as an old friend from Oxford University, warning that
Wotton is a bad influence. Wotton thinks the youth is "certainly wonderfully
handsome," the narrator tells the reader, "with his finely curved scarlet
lips, his frank blue eyes, his crisp gold hair. There was something in
his face that made one trust him at once. All the candour of youth was
there, as well as all youth's passionate purity."
while Hallward continues to daub at the painting, Gray and Wotton talk
in the garden. The narrator says Wotton's "romantic, olive-coloured face
and worn expression interested [Dorian]. There was something in his low
languid voice that was absolutely fascinating. His cool, white, flowerlike
hands, even, had a curious charm. They moved, as he spoke, like music,
and seemed to have a language of their own."
compliments Gray on his looks but then unsettles the young man when he
tells him he has only a short time left to enjoy life to its fullest. “When
your youth goes, your beauty will go with it, and then you will suddenly
discover that there are no triumphs left for you. . . . You will become
sallow, and hollow-cheeked, and dull-eyed. You will suffer horribly."
short time later, Hallward announces that the painting is finished. Wotton
congratulates him on the excellence of the portrait. It is clear that Gray
has awakened latent talent in Hallward, so good is the painting. But Gray
is silent. “Don’t you like it?" Hallward asks. Wotton answers for him,
saying that he indeed likes it, and Lord Henry then offers to buy it. Hallward
says, however, that he will give it to Dorian.Gray
says he is sad that he will grow old while the portrait remains young.
If only the reverse were true, he says—if only he would remain young while
the portrait grows old. “I would give my soul for that!"
Dorian as Faust
so Gray, it appears, becomes a sort of Faust, and that evening he goes
to the opera with his Mephistopheles, Lord Henry. In the following days,
Wotton indeed proves a “bad influence," for Dorian begins following him
in the pursuit of pleasure for the sake of pleasure. They engage in scandalous
activities which erode Dorian’s innocence.
evening, while attending the Royal Theatre in the Holborn district of London,
Gray becomes enthralled with a young woman playing Juliet in Shakespeare’s
and Juliet. Her name is Sibyl Vane. She is quite striking, Dorian thinks.
She is a portrait in beauty, like the portrait of himself, and a wonderful
actress. After they meet, she becomes equally enthralled with Dorian. In
a short while, they pledge their love for each other.
Wotton visits his uncle, Lord George Fermor, to find out about the history
of Gray’s family. Fermor, an old bachelor who owns two townhouses and a
colliery business, lives in chambers at the Albany Hotel and is well connected
in aristocratic circles. When told that Gray is the grandson of a certain
Lord Kelso, Fermor says he knew Kelso and Dorian’s mother.
was an extraordinarily beautiful girl, Margaret Devereux, and made all
the men frantic by running away with a penniless young fellow—a mere nobody,
sir, a subaltern in a foot regiment, or something of that kind."
who had inherited a fortune from one side of her family, could have had
her choice of established young men but shocked her father, Kelso, when
she married a cipher. So enraged was Lord Kelso that he hired a Belgian
thug to pick a fight with his son-in-law, and the Belgian killed him in
a duel. Margaret died less than a year later. Dorian thus became heir to
his mother’s fortune—and later, apparently, was designated to receive a
goodly sum from old Kelso.
believes Dorian’s family history makes him all the more interesting: “Behind
every exquisite thing that existed," he muses, “there was something tragic."
And he would seek to take advantage of Gray and “make that wonderful spirit
takes Wotton and Hallward to the theatre to show off Sibyl Vane. Mr. Isaacs,
the fat Jewish manager of the theatre, greets them at the door and escorts
them to a box. Dorian despises Isaacs, thinking of him as a Caliban (a
beast-man in Shakespeare's The Tempest), but Lord Henry likes him
because of his sponsorship of the arts. When Sybil recites her lines, Dorian
is surprised that she is not the actress she was when he first saw her.
Her performance is perfunctory, incompetent—just plain bad. Apparently
her fervid love for Dorian has made her feigned stage love for Romeo seem
she is a happy young lady, nonetheless, and she tells her mother all about
Dorian, calling him a true “Prince Charming." Mrs. Vane, who knows nothing
of Dorian’s background, frowns on the relationship, suggesting that Sibyl
pay more attention to Mr. Isaacs, who has provided the Vanes 50 pounds
to pay debts and buy clothing for Sibyl’s brother, James. James cautions
Sybil about Dorian, noting that she hardly knows him. But Sibyl says her
heart is set on him.
when he next visits her, he criticizes her severely for her poor stage
performance, calling her “shallow and stupid" and a “third-rate actress"
who embarrassed him before his friends. He then ends their relationship.
She turns white with disbelief. “You are not serious, Dorian," she says.
“You are acting." He assures her he is serious. When she begs him not to
leave her, he walks out.
his elegant residence he glimpses the painting as he enters. The expression
on the face has changed! It cannot not be possible, yet there it is “with
the touch of cruelty in the mouth." The portrait “had taught him to love
his own beauty. Would it teach him to loathe his own soul? . . . . Here
was a visible symbol of the degradation of sin" into which Dorian had plunged.
Suddenly afraid, Dorian decides it would be best to redeem himself. So,
even though he no longer truly loves Sibyl, he writes her a love letter
in which he begs forgiveness.
Sybil Kills Herself
stops by to see him on an urgent matter, following up on a letter he had
sent Dorian earlier in the day. Dorian tells Lord Henry of his cruel behavior
toward Sibyl but says he plans to marry her anyway. Wotton realizes Dorian
has not yet read the letter, so he informs him of its message: Sibyl Vane
has been found dead. She had swallowed a concoction laced with prussic
acid. Dorian regrets her death, which he knows he caused, but apparently
only because he thinks Sibyl would have kept him from the dangerous, dissolute
life he has chosen to lead under Wotton’s influence. “She had no right
to kill herself," he says. “It was selfish of her."
Henry consoles him, telling him not to spend tears on Sibyl but instead
to look forward to the wonderful life that awaits him. “There is nothing
that you, with your extraordinary good looks, will not be able to do,"
Dorian continues on the path cleared for him by Lord Henry. That very evening,
he and Wotton attend the opera and Dorian forgets Sibyl. The following
day, when Hallward arrives to offer his condolences, he is shocked to learn
that Dorian had attended the opera on the very day that Sibyl died. Dorian
manages to explain away his behavior, and Hallward seems satisfied. Hallward
walks toward the painting, which is behind a screen, to again admire his
handiwork. Dorian, terrified that Hallward will see the change in it, forbids
Hallward to look at it, saying he will never speak to him again if he draws
back the screen. Dorian’s fists are clenched. He means business. Hallward
is dumbstruck. He tells Dorian he had meant to show it at an exhibition
in Paris, but he backs away from the painting.
experience so disturbs Dorian that he decides to move it where no one has
access to it—a room upstairs he had not used in years. It is where he studied
as a child. “The old schoolroom," he calls it. His grandfather, Lord Kelso,
had had it built especially for Dorian so that he could keep the boy out
of his sight. He despised Dorian, for the boy’s face reminded Kelso of
Dorian’s mother and her shameful marriage. After obtaining the key to the
room from his housekeeper, Mrs. Leaf, Dorian engages a frame maker, Mr.
Hubbard, and his assistant to move the heavy, bulky painting—which Dorian
has wrapped in a coverlet—to the room.
in his library, he sits down to read a book Lord Henry had sent over for
him—a novel about the sinful life of a young Parisian. It is a “poisonous
book," Dorian realizes, and he devours it.
continues to lead the dangerous life ordained for him by Wotton, engaging
in every manner of profane activity. Many years pass in which people whisper
about his shameful behavior, but he still enjoys some favor in society
because of his looks, which simply do not change, and because of his money
and the pleasures it can buy. He holds lavish parties at his house, where
only the most celebrated musicians perform. Sometimes, too, he hosts little
concerts at which gypsies and Indians and Tunisians play exotic instruments.
He collects jewels, tapestries, embroideries—anything that strikes his
fancy, even church vestments. He maintains a great house in Nottinghamshire,
where he and his guests pursue forbidden pleasures. For a time lives abroad
with Lord Henry at a villa in Trouville, France, at a house in Algiers,
Algeria. But he always returns—to look at the portrait, to see that it
remains safe in its hiding place.
portrait, meanwhile, becomes more and more hideous. One day, when Dorian
is 38 but still appears young, Hallward reproaches him about his scandalous
lifestyle, and Dorian decides to show him the portrait. The time has come
for him to reveal the state of his soul. When Dorian pulls away the curtain
hiding it, the narrator says, “An exclamation of horror broke from the
painter's lips as he saw in the dim light the hideous face on the canvas
grinning at him. There was something in its expression that filled him
with disgust and loathing."
Dorian Kills Hallward
concludes that Dorian must be even more evil than the rumors say, and he
urges him to recant his sins. “Pray, Dorian, pray." But by now, the devil
owns Dorian. Suddenly a feeling of deep hatred for Hallward seizes him.
In a rage he takes up a knife he had brought to the room days before to
cut a cord. He plunges it into Hallward again and again. Then he blackmails
an acquaintance, Alan Campbell—a man with a dark secret known to Dorian—to
dissolve Hallward’s corpse with chemicals.
in the evening, Dorian visits an opium den by the waterfront, where smokers
lie on old mattresses and Dorian well knows "in what strange heavens they
were suffering, and what dull hells were teaching them the secret of some
new joy." He recognizes Adrian Singleton, a young man whom Dorian had brought
to ruin. Now no one but Dorian will even speak to Singleton. When they
later have brandy together at a bar, Dorian—in a rare moment of remorse—offers
to help Singleton: "You will write to me if you want anything?" "Perhaps,"
Dorian leaves, he walks along the river in drizzling rain. For a moment—just
a moment—he feels sorry for Singleton, then decides it was not his fault
that Singleton had fallen so low. Each man makes his own decisions, and
each man must pay the price for making the wrong ones.
continues on, "callous, concentrated on evil, with stained mind, and soul
hungry for rebellion." But in a moment he is confronted by another man
from his past: James Vane, Sybil's brother. He means to kill Dorian to
avenge the death of his sister. But Dorian tells him he has the wrong man
and, under a light, shows him his face. It is still as young as it was
18 years before, when Sybil killed herself. This youth could not be Dorian
Gray, Vane believes, and he leaves Dorian alone. Later, however, a woman
informs he that he was indeed speaking to Dorian Gray. One day, while Dorian
and is out hunting with acquaintances, one of the hunters shoots what he
thinks is a hare. But it turns out to be a man—James Vane, who was apparently
the following days, Dorian looks to a new life in which he will change
his evil ways. One evening at Wotton's home, he tells Lord Henry that he
has actually done something good: He has given up a beautiful village girl,
Hetty Merton, whom he had been seeing two to three times each week. They
were to run off together, but Dorian decided not to steal her innocence.
Dorian speaks further about reforming himself and even reproaches Wotton:
"You poisoned me with a book once. I should not forgive that. Harry, promise
me that you will never lend that book to any one. It does harm."
is unmoved. He tells Dorian that morality, the existence of the soul—it
is all nonsense. "Don't spoil [the rest of your life] by renunciations.
At present you are a perfect type. Don't make yourself incomplete. You
are quite flawless now."
returning home, Dorian continues to think about his new life. Vane is dead
and buried, Alan Campbell has shot himself, and Basil Hallward’s disappearance
remains a mystery. What has he to worry about? Perhaps the painting. However,
his good deed—his sparing of Hetty—may be reflected in the painting. Perhaps
the painting has already changed for the better. He goes upstairs for a
look. When he beholds it, he cries out in pain.
could see no change, save that in the eyes there was a look of cunning
and in the mouth the curved wrinkle of the hypocrite. The thing was still
loathsome—more loathsome, if possible, than before. . . ."
turns around and picks up the knife that he used to kill Basil Hallward.
He stabs the painting. There is a loud crash. Servants come running. They
summon a coachman and a footman, but no one can break down the locked door
to the room that gave out the noise. So they go on the roof, drop down
onto a balcony, and break through windows to the room. There they see the
portrait of Dorian in the full bloom of youth, unchanged from the day Hallward
had finished it—and a dead man in Dorian Gray’s clothes. He is old and
withered, with a hideous face..
Self-worship leads to
self-destruction. Dorian Gray’s excessive love of himself leads to
an obsessional desire to preserve the moment—whatever the moral cost—in
order to maintain his looks at the peak of their perfection and enjoy all
the pleasures that they bring him. Of this obsession, the narrator says
in Chapter 11,
Sometimes when he
was down at his great house in Nottinghamshire, entertaining the fashionable
young men of his own rank who were his chief companions, and astounding
the county by the wanton luxury and gorgeous splendour of his mode of life,
he would suddenly leave his guests and rush back to town to see that the
door had not been tampered with and that the picture was still there. What
if it should be stolen? The mere thought made him cold with horror. Surely
the world would know his secret then. Perhaps the world already suspected
it. Time will have its way.
No man can defeat time; it marches inexorably toward old age and death.
Dorian Gray ends up old and ugly and dead, physically and spiritually.
Yes, he remained youthful looking for many years, seemingly cheating time.
But time, in the form of the portrait, caught up with him and gained its
revenge. In some ways, Gray’s attempts to preserve his youth resemble the
attempts by modern men and women to forestall aging with lotions, special
diets and exercises, cosmetic surgery, and youthful fashions.
Beauty is only skin deep.
Beneath his veneer of elegant good looks, Dorian Gray is monstrously ugly.
As Shakespeare observed in The Merchant of Venice: “A goodly apple
rotten at the heart: / O, what a goodly outside falsehood hath!"
Earthly pleasures can
never completely satisfy a human being. Dorian Gray never is really
happy because he never realizes that the things of the earth—physical beauty
and the pleasures of the flesh—can never satisfy man’s insatiable desire
Evil appears in winsome
disguises. Lord Henry Wotton and Dorian Gray are both charming, each
in his own way. But their outer charms disguise inner evil.
An abused child becomes
an abusive adult. Dorian Gray’s grandfather, Lord Kelso, reared the
orphaned Dorian in a poisonous atmosphere. The old man despised Dorian
and even had a special “schoolroom" built for the boy so that he could
shut him up in it and not have to endure his presence. When Dorian grows
up, he lashes out at Sybil Vane, driving her to suicide; murders Basil
Hallward; and blackmails Alan Campbell, who also commits suicide. Ultimately,
Dorian turns his wrath against himself.
Dorian Gray is admired by other males in the novel for his “beauty"—the
word author Oscar Wilde, who was a homosexual himself, uses again and again
to describe Dorian and the word these male characters use from time to
time in dialogue in their praise of Dorian. Although Wilde never explicitly
describes or refers to intimate relations between Dorian and other males,
he indicates that Lord Henry Wotton and other characters either desired
such relations or participated in them. Homosexuality apparently is one
of the sins that corrupt Dorian and possibly other young men in the novel.
climax of a narrative work can be defined as (1) the turning point at which
the conflict begins to resolve itself for better or worse, or as (2) the
final and most exciting event in a series of events. According to the first
definition, the climax of The Picture of Dorian Gray occurs when
Dorian first notices a change in the portrait, after the death of Sybil
Vane. At this point, he realizes that he is sinking in a morass of evil.
According to the second definition, the climax occurs when Dorian attempts
to "kill" the portrait but instead kills himself.
Picture of Dorian Gray is easy to read and understand, thanks in part
to long passage of witty dialogue passages that keep the action moving
at a brisk pace—like that of one of Wilde's stage plays. (A notable exception
in the use of dialogue is Chapter 11, written entirely in narrative paragraphs.)
Here is an excerpt of the dialogue from Chapter 3.
"We are talking
about poor Dartmoor, Lord Henry," cried the duchess, nodding pleasantly
to him across the table. "Do you think he will really marry this fascinating
and Other References
"I believe she has made
up her mind to propose to him, Duchess."
"How dreadful!" exclaimed
Lady Agatha. "Really, some one should interfere."
"I am told, on excellent
authority, that her father keeps an American dry-goods store," said Sir
Thomas Burdon, looking supercilious.
"My uncle has already suggested
pork-packing Sir Thomas."
"Dry-goods! What are American
dry-goods?" asked the duchess, raising her large hands in wonder and accentuating
"American novels," answered
Lord Henry, helping himself to some quail.
The duchess looked puzzled.
"Don't mind him, my dear,"
whispered Lady Agatha. "He never means anything that he says."
"When America was discovered,"
said the Radical member [of Parliament] -- and he began to give some wearisome
facts. Like all people who try to exhaust a subject, he exhausted his listeners.
The duchess sighed and exercised her privilege of interruption. "I wish
to goodness it never had been discovered at all!" she exclaimed. "Really,
our girls have no chance nowadays. It is most unfair."
"Perhaps, after all, America
never has been discovered," said Mr. Erskine; "I myself would say that
it had merely been detected."
"Oh! but I have seen specimens
of the inhabitants," answered the duchess vaguely. "I must confess that
most of them are extremely pretty. And they dress well, too. They get all
their dresses in Paris. I wish I could afford to do the same."
"They say that when good
Americans die they go to Paris," chuckled Sir Thomas, who had a large wardrobe
of Humour's cast-off clothes.
Really! And where do bad
Americans go to when they die?" inquired the duchess.
"They go to America," murmured
Allusions or direct references
to persons, places, and things from history, myth, and legend play an important
role in the novel in that they help to reveal the interests of Dorian Gray
and, in some instances, those of Lord Henry and other characters. For example,
the following paragraphs tell of one of Gray's interests.
one occasion he took up the study of jewels, and appeared at a costume
ball as Anne de Joyeuse, Admiral of France, in [an ensemble] covered with
five hundred and sixty pearls. This taste enthralled him for years, and,
indeed, may be said never to have left him. He would often spend a whole
day settling and resettling in their cases the various stones that be had
collected . . . .
discovered wonderful stories, also, about jewels. In Alphonso's Clericalis
Disciplina a serpent was mentioned with eyes of real jacinth. . . . When
the Duke de Valentinois, son of Alexander VI, visited Louis XII of France,
his horse was loaded with gold leaves, according to Brantome, and his cap
had double rows of rubies that threw out a great light. Charles of England
had ridden in stirrups hung with four hundred and twenty-one diamonds.
Richard II had a coat, valued at thirty thousand marks, which was covered
with balas rubies. Hall described Henry VIII, on his way to the Tower previous
to his coronation, as wearing "a jacket of raised gold, the placard embroidered
with diamonds and other rich stones, and a great bauderike about his neck
of large balasses." The favourites of James I wore ear-rings of emeralds
set in gold filigrane.
Following is a sampling
of allusions and other references in the novel.
Adonis (Chapter 1):
In Greek mythology, an exceptionally handsome young man favored by the
goddess of love, Aphrodite. A wild boar kills him while he is participating
in his favorite sport, hunting. Shakespeare's Venus
and Adonis tells the story.
Alexander VI (Chapter
11): Spaniard who became pope in 1492. Alexander (1431-1503) betrayed his
church with corrupt rule that ignored spiritual matters.
Clericalis Disciplina (Chapter 6): Disciplina Clericalis, a
twelfth-century collection of literary works presented by Peter Alfonsi.
11): Anastasius I (430-518), Byzantine emperor from 491 to 518.
Anne de Joyeuse (Chapter
11): Duke Anne de Joyeuse (1561-1587), French nobleman, admiral of France,
governor of Normandy, and a leader of Roman Catholics against Protestant
Huguenots in France.
11): Christian belief that established laws of morality are not necessary
for salvation; only divine grace and faith are necessary.
(Chapter 19): In Greek mythology, god of prophecy, music, poetry, and medicine.
His alternate name, Phoebus, means brightness, and he was thus also considered
the god of the sun.
Athena (Chapter 11):
In Greek mythology, goddess of wisdom and war.
3): In ancient Greece, a female member of the cult of Dionysus, the god
of wine and revelry. His Roman name was Bacchus.
11): Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), German composer of many of the world's
greatest symphonies and piano pieces.
3): Great Renaissance artist Michelangelo Bunonarotti (1475-1564), who
painted the Sistine Chapel and sculpted the Pietà and the
and designed he dome of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
7): Savage, ugly half-man in Shakespeare's play The Tempest. Dorian
thinks the theater owner, Mr. Isaacs, resembles Caliban.
Catherine de Médicis
(Chapter 11): Great-granddaughter of the powerful Lorenzo de' Medici
of Florence. Catherine (1519-1585) married the duc d'Orléans of
France, who acceded to the French throne as Henry II. Three of her sons
became kings of France.
Charles of Orléans
(Chapter 6): Duc d'Orléans (1522-1545) and son of Francis I, king
Chopin (Chapter 11):
Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849), Polish-French composer of soulful
romantic music for the piano.
4): French rococo (1738-1814) sculptor who portrayed sensuality in the
form of satyrs, nymphs, and votaries of Bacchus, the god of wine and revelry.
Lord Henry has a Clodion statuette in his home.
Cortez (Chapter 11):
Hernán Cortés (1485-1547), Spanish soldier, explorer, and
conqueror of Mexico.
Dante (Chapter 11):
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), author of the great epic poem The
Divine Comedy. Acquaintances of Dorian Gray think that he seemed
to be of the company of those whom Dante describes as having sought to
"make themselves perfect by the worship of beauty."
8): Beautiful wife of the title character of Shakespeare's Othello.
Diaz (Chapter 11):
Bernal Díaz del Castillo, Spanish soldier and author who accompanied
Hernán Cortés when the latter conquered Mexico.
Dorian: The historical
term Dorian refers to people of ancient Greece, thought to have
originated in a region known as Doris, who developed the simple but elegant
Doric style of architecture. This style was used in the design and construction
of one of the most beautiful buildings in the history of the world, the
Parthenon, a temple of white marble on the Acropolis in Athens. When musing
about Dorian Gray in Chapter 3, Lord Henry Wotton links Dorian with ancient
Greek architecture: "Grace was his, and the white purity of boyhood, and
beauty such as the old Greek marbles kept for us."
(Chapter 6): French novelist, poet, and critic (1811-1872).
Imogen (Chapter 8):
Protagonist of Shakespeare's Cymbeline.
She defies her father, Cymbeline, and marries the man she chooses.
John the Priest:
Probably an allusion to Prester John, the subject of medieval legends that
said he was a priest who became ruler of a land east of Persia.
strange romance A Margarite of America
(Chapter 6): Reference to a 1596 romance by Thomas Lodge (1557-1625), English
writer of prose, poetry, and plays.
Louis Quatorze clock
(Chapter 4): Clock designed in the lavish style popular during the reign
of France's King Louis XIV (1638-1715). He was king from 1643 to 1715.
Manon Lescaut (Chapter
4): Novel by Antoine-François Prévost d'Exiles (1697-1763),
about a young man from an upstanding family who falls to ruin over a courtesan.
Jules Massenet and Giacomo Puccini both based operas on the book.
Marco Polo: Venetian
merchant and adventurer (1254-1324) who spent seventeen years in China.
He wrote a book about his experience that became a classic in world travel
6): Messalina Valaria, wife of the Roman emperor Claudius I. She was known
for her decadent lifestyle.
7): Beautiful young daughter of Prospero, the protagonist of Shakespeare's
play The Tempest.
(Chapter 11): Arab prophet (570?-632?) who founded Islam.
10): Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592), Frenchman who pioneered the essay
1): In Greek mythology, a young man of extraordinary good looks and the
subject of a story in Ovid's Metamorphoses.
One day, while gazing into a pool of water, he fell in love with his reflected
image. He was so in love with what he saw that he was unable to turn his
gaze away. Consequently, he wasted away as he stared at the image. Like
Narcissus, Dorian is in love with himself.
8): Daughter of a court official in Shakespeare's Hamlet.
She loves Hamlet, but his pretended madness—during
which he rejects her—and the death of her father trigger a pathological
reaction in her.
11): Franz Schubert (1797-1828), Austrian composer of symphonic and piano
2): Robert Schumann (1810-1856), German romantic composer of symphonies,
piano works, and lieder (songs).
(Chapter 11): Jan III Sobieski (1629-1696), king of Poland, famous for
driving back Ottoman Turks.
velarium that Nero had
stretched across the Colosseum at Rome (Chapter 11): Nero (AD 37-68)
was emperor of Rome from 54-68. Wilde commits a faux pas here, for the
Colosseum--a huge amphitheater for gladiatorial contests and other entertainment--did
not exist during Nero's reign. It was constructed under Emperor Vespasian
and completed between AD 80 and 82. The velarium was an awning stretched
over seating areas to shield spectators from the sun.
Wagner (Chapter 6):
Richard Wagner (1813-1883), German composer of operas, such as Lohengrin.
Picture of Dorian Gray contains many symbols, including the following.
Cigarette: Lord Henry's
"opium-tainted cigarette" represents his corrupt lifestyle.
Fermor's collieries symbolize the oppression of the underclasses.
Coverlet: The purple
and gold coverlet draped over the portrait symbolizes a pall covering the
morally dead Dorian.
Laburnum: One of
the most telling symbols appears in the following passage in the second
paragraph of Chapter 1: "Lord Henry Wotton could just catch the gleam of
the honey-sweet and honey-coloured blossoms of a laburnum, whose tremulous
branches seemed hardly able to bear the burden of a beauty so flamelike
as theirs." A laburnum is a poisonous tree of the pea family." Certainly
Dorian turns out to be "poisonous" to many characters and, like the laburnum,
has difficulty bearing "the burden of beauty." This symbol appears to foreshadow
many plot developments.
Gray's portrait symbolizes the state of Dorian's soul.
Yellow book: Given
to Dorian by Lord Henry, this book represents the lord's corrupting influence
on the youth.
Wilde indulges his witty pen again and again in epigrams loaded with paradox,
irony, and antithesis, frequently couched in parallel sentence structure.
Most of these witticisms occur in dialogue spoken by Lord Henry. Here are
There is only one thing
in the world worse than being talked about, and that is not being talked
about. (Chapter 1)
witticisms such as these occur so frequently that they become tiresome.
It is almost as if author Wilde is attempting to set the world record for
most epigrams, aphorisms, bon mots—call them what you may—in a single novel.
But not only Lord Henry speaks them; so do other characters. Consider these:
She is a peacock in everything
but beauty. (Chapter 1)
Nothing can cure the soul
but the senses, just as nothing can cure the senses but the soul. (Chapter
I don't want money. It is
only people who pay their bills who want that, Uncle George, and I never
pay mine. (Chapter 3)
We have emancipated them
[women], but they remain slaves looking for their masters. (Chapter 8)
All crime is vulgar, just
as all vulgarity is crime. (Chapter 19)
Books that the world calls
immoral are books that show the world its own shame. (Chapter 19)
It often seems to me that
art conceals the artist far more completely than it ever reveals him.—Basil
Hallward. (Chapter 9)
result is that the characters who speak these witticisms end up sounding
alike. The illusion that they are part of a story is destroyed as readers
perceive Oscar Wilde manipulating his marionettes and mouthing their lines.
Wilde was ever ready to show the world how clever he was. It is said that
when he arrived in the United States for a speaking tour, he said, "The
only thing I have to declare is my genius."
Harry spends his days in
saying what is incredible and his evenings in doing what is improbable.—Dorian
Gray. (Chapter 9)
A man who is master of himself
can end a sorrow as easily as he can invent a pleasure.—Dorian Gray. (Chapter
Gray as Faust
Gray acts out the Faust legend, but unlike Faust he does not redeem himself.
According to the Faust legend—told
in the Faustbuch (1587) and retold in numerous literary works, including
in the early 19th Century—Faust sold his soul to the devil in exchange
for 24 years of pleasure. However, Faust redeems himself through good works
and repentance. In the first chapter of The Picture of Dorian Gray,
Dorian says, “I would give my soul" in order to remain young. Nearly two
decades pass and Dorian does remain young—on the surface. Although he makes
half-hearted attempts to reform, he ultimately fails to redeem himself.
Foreshadows Wilde's Religious Conversion
he died, Oscar Wilde became a Roman Catholic. In a passage in Chapter 11,
describing Dorian Gray's fascination with Roman Catholic ritual, Wilde
perhaps is really writing about himself.
It was rumoured
of him once that he was about to join the Roman Catholic communion, and
certainly the Roman ritual had always a great attraction for him. The daily
sacrifice, more awful really than all the sacrifices of the antique world,
stirred him as much by its superb rejection of the evidence of the senses
as by the primitive simplicity of its elements and the eternal pathos of
the human tragedy that it sought to symbolize. He loved to kneel down on
the cold marble pavement and watch the priest, in his stiff flowered dalmatic,
slowly and with white hands moving aside the veil of the tabernacle, or
raising aloft the jewelled, lantern-shaped monstrance with that pallid
wafer that at times, one would fain think, is indeed the "panis caelestis,"
the bread of angels, or, robed in the garments of the Passion of Christ,
breaking the Host into the chalice and smiting his breast for his sins.
The fuming censers that the grave boys, in their lace and scarlet, tossed
into the air like great gilt flowers had their subtle fascination for him.
As he passed out, he used to look with wonder at the black confessionals
and long to sit in the dim shadow of one of them and listen to men and
women whispering through the worn grating the true story of their lives.Wilde's
the revised version of the novel, published in 1891, the preface articulated
Wilde's "art for art's sake" aesthetic theory. "There is no such thing
as a moral or an immoral book," Wilde wrote. "Books are well written, or
badly written. That is all."
Questions and Essay Topics
Wilde (1854-1900) was born in Dublin, Ireland, to highly educated parents.
His father was a surgeon and writer and his mother, a poet and political
activist. He studied at Trinity College in Dublin and graduated from Oxford
University in England in 1878, where he earned a reputation as a wit. While
developing his skills as a playwright, poet, and novelist, he married Constance
Lloyd, the well-to-do daughter of an attorney, and fathered two children.
He worked for a while writing and editing articles for periodicals before
devoting himself to his literary pursuits. He was at his best when writing
plays, the most popular and most esteemed of which are The Importance
of Being Earnest and Lady Windermere's Fan. In 1895, after three
sensational trials, a British court found him guilty of committing homosexual
acts and sentenced him to two years in prison. The jail time ruined him
financially and emotionally. After his release, he spent the rest of his
life in Paris, where he died of meningitis in 1900 after converting to
the religion he had long esteemed, Roman Catholicism.
Write an essay arguing that
a major fault of many of the characters in The Picture of Dorian Gray
is that they judge others by how they look or what they have rather than
by the quality of their character. Include in your essay specific examples
from the book.
Does Dorian Gray have any redeeming
Are there characters in the
novel whom you admire?
Compare and contrast Dorian
Gray with Faust, the title character of Wolfgang
von Goethe's masterwork.
Compare and contrast Lord Henry
Wotton with Mephistopheles, the devil figure in Goethe's Faust.
Comment on the validity, or
lack of it, of this observation in the novel: "Books that the world calls
immoral are books that show the world its own shame."