Complete List of Shakespeare Plays on DVDs, Including Two Versions of Much Ado About Nothing
Much Ado About Nothing
A Study Guide
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Type of Work
Key Dates
Prose vs Verse
Animal Imagery
Metaphors of Fire
Dogberry's Malapropisms
Study Questions
Essay Topics
Shakespeare's Biography
Complete Free Text
Study Guide Prepared by Michael J. Cummings...© 2003
Revised in 2010 ©

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Type of Work

.......Much Ado About Nothing is a stage play in the form of a comedy centering on the activities of two war heroes and the women they love. Shakespeare shifts back and forth between the stories of the couplesBenedick and Beatrice, Claudio and Herointerweaving them into a unified whole. The story observes the three unities (place, time, and action) established by ancient Greek and Renaissance thinkers and writers: (1) It takes place in one locale, (2) it lasts about a single day, and (3) it has one main story (although some view one or the other of the two love stories as a subplot). 

Key Dates
Date Written: Probably 1598.
First Performance: Probably December 1598 or early in 1599.
First Printing: 1600 quarto edition by Valentine Sims for Andrew Wise and William Aspley; 1623 as part of the First Folio, the first authorized collection of Shakespeare's plays.


.......The probable main source for the play was a short tale by Matteo Bandello (1485-1561), an Italian writer who became a bishop in France. Another apparent source was Orlando Furioso, a great epic poem, by Ludovico Ariosto (1474-1535). 

.......The action takes place in the city of Messina in northeastern Sicily. Messina is in a mountainous province whose eastern shore is only about five miles across from the toe of the Italian boot. Modern Messina is a large city, with between 250,000 and 300,000 inhabitants.

Protagonists: Benedick and Beatrice, arguably, because they are both real, hotblooded charactersfar more interesting than the other protagonist candidates, Claudio and Hero. The latter two are less animated, rather shallow characters, who idealize courtly love.
Antagonists: Don John; mix-ups and misconceptions
Benedick: Young lord from Padua who thinks he hates Beatrice but really loves her.
Beatrice: Niece of the governor of Messina who thinks she hates Benedick but really loves him.
Leonato: Governor of Messina, uncle of Beatrice, and father of Hero.
Don Pedro: Prince of Arragon, a fine fellow who has led his forces to victory in a war against his brother, Don John.
Don John: Don Pedro's bastard brother, a wicked fellow who was defeated by Don Pedro.
Claudio: Young lord from Florence who falls in love with Hero. He seems knightly and pure, but his conversations suggest that his attraction to Hero results partly from the fact that she will one day become a wealthy heiress.
Hero: Leonato's daughter, who falls in love with Claudio.
Margaret, Ursula: Hero's attendants.
Antonio: Leonato's brother.
Balthasar: Don Pedro's attendant.
Conrade, Borachio: No-good followers of Don John.
Friar Francis: Priest who helps Hero regain her reputation.
Dogberry: Constable of Messina.
Verges: Headborough.
Minor Characters: Messengers, Watchmen, Attendants.

Plot Summary
By Michael J. Cummings...© 2003

.......After defeating his troublemaking brother, Don John, in a military campaign, Don Pedro of Arragon and several of his compatriots visit relatives and other friends in Messina, a city in northeastern Sicily. Leonato, the governor of Messina, receives word that Don Pedro is but three leagues off (about nine miles) and will arrive in Messina in a few hours with a company of men, including the defeated Don John. Also with Don Pedro are two of his most valiant soldiers, Benedick of Padua and Claudio of Florence. A messenger tells Leonato that Claudio performed heroically: "He hath borne himself beyond the promise of his age, doing, in the figure of a lamb, the feats of a lion: he hath indeed better bettered expectation than you must expect of me to tell you how" (1. 1. 8).
.......The messenger has already informed Claudio’s uncle, who lives in Messina, of the young man’s battlefield heroics. So overcome was Claudio’s uncle with joy at this news that he broke down and cried. 
.......When Leonato’s niece, Beatrice, inquires about Benedick, the messenger tells her that he also distinguished himself in battle. Benedick and Beatrice are old acquaintances who inwardly love each other but outwardly display nothing but contempt for each other. Whenever they meet, they spend most of their time insulting each other in a long-standing verbal war. When hearing that Benedick has become Claudio’s friend, she says Benedick will surely be a corrupting influence on the Florentine: "O Lord, he will hang upon him [Claudio] like a disease: he is sooner caught than the pestilence, and the taker runs presently mad. God help the noble Claudio! if he have caught the Benedick, it will cost him a thousand pound ere [he] be cured" (1. 1. 34).
.......In temperament, Beatrice is the opposite of Leonato’s lovely daughter, Hero, a delicate gentlewoman of utmost propriety who obeys her father and keeps her tongue in check.
.......After Don Pedro and his company arrive, they exchange pleasantries with Leonato, and Don John expresses remorse and repentance for waging war against his brother. Inwardly, however, he seethes with bitterness and looks for an opportunity to gain revenge. When Claudio first beholds the sight of the comely Hero, he falls madly in love with her. She is to him the paragon of young womanhoodas sweet as honey, as innocent as a lamb. Hero does not shy away from Claudio’s wooing eyes.
.......Meanwhile, when Benedick sees Beatrice and she sees him, they fall madly in hate all over again even though they secretly love each other. Of course, as they parry savage insults that burn to the quick, the audience and the reader realize that the sparks they make will eventually ignite the fires of passion. 
.......At a masked ball, Beatrice asks a masked man whether he knows Benedick, not realizing that the man is Benedick himself. Playing a little game with her, Benedick denies knowing the man and asks who he is. Beatrice replies, “Why, he is the prince’s jester: a very dull fool; only his gift is in devising impossible slanders: none but libertines delight in him; and the commendation is not in his wit, but in his villainy” (2. 1. 64). (An interesting argument could be made here that Beatrice does, in fact, know that she is addressing Benedick and, further, that she improvised the insult to prick his ego.) 
.......Later, when they confront each other without disguises, Benedick returns the insult when, in a conversation with Governor Leonato, he compares Beatrice to a harpy, a hideous winged monster in Greek mythology. Don John, the revenge-seeking troublemaker, tries to thwart the flourishing romance between Claudio and Hero. Claudio, after all, won glory in the military action that subdued Don John. He had humbled and humiliated Don John. Did not Claudio, therefore, deserve a comeuppance of his own? Don John then tries to convince Claudio that Hero loves Don Pedro. After much ado and confusion, his plan fails, and it is agreed with the governor’s blessing that Claudio and Hero will marry.
.......While all Messina prepares for the wedding, Don Pedro sets himself to a Herculean task: making Benedick and Beatrice fall in love. With the help of Hero, Don Pedro arranges occasions in which Benedick overhears that Beatrice loves him, and Beatrice overhears that Benedick loves her. Their enmity for each other softens; their love for each other quickens.
.......In the meantime, the evil Don John tries another scheme, designed by his henchman, Borachio. Borachio tells Margaret, one of Hero’s servants, to dress in Hero’s clothes and stand at Hero’s window at midnight on the evening before the wedding. Margaret is only too willing to do as she is told, for she is sweet on Borachio. However, she is unaware that she is about to take part in a plot against Hero. Just before midnight, Don Pedro and Claudio arrive in an orchard nearby, having been told by Don John that Hero has been trysting with another man and that she will meet with him again that very night. While they watch, Margaret appears at the window in Hero’s clothes and Borachio, pretending to be a paramour, climbs out while Margaret bids him loving farewells. In the darkness, Don Pedro and Claudio fall victim to the deception and believe Hero has surrendered herself to some unnamed man. 
.......At the altar the next day, Claudio condemns Hero as a whore for making love with another man on the eve of her wedding. He tells Leonato, “Give not this rotten orange to your friend. . . .  She knows the heat of a luxurious bed” (4. 1. 25. . . 34). Hero faints. Her father, Leonato, takes Claudio at his word, believing Hero is indeed a whore. 
.......Only Benedick and Beatriceas well as the local priest, Friar Francisbelieve in Hero’s innocence. After they plead their case in Hero’s favor, Governor Leonato has second thoughts about his daughter, and Friar Francis persuades Leonato that it would be best to pretend that Hero has died of grief. The friar says, 
Your daughter here the princes left for dead:
Let her awhile be secretly kept in,
And publish1 it that she is dead indeed;
Maintain a mourning ostentation
And on your family’s old monument
Hang mournful epitaphs and do all rites
That appertain unto a burial. (4. 1. 206-212)
.......Thinking Hero dead, perhaps Claudio, out of grief and sympathy for his former beloved, will change his opinion of her. That is the idea, anyway. Benedick and Beatrice, meanwhile, argue about what to do next. During their conversation, Benedick tells Beatrice that he truly loves her. But Beatrice, in a torrent of tongue-lash, challenges Benedick to kill Claudio because he has dishonored Hero. Benedick cows before her verbal onslaught and agrees to do her bidding.  Butwhat ho!Leonato has already challenged Claudio. Now convinced of his daughter’s innocence, he means to kill her dastardly accuser. When Leonato and Claudio are about to square off, everyone learns of Don John’s treachery. It seems that Borachio was overheard bragging about his plot against Hero to one of his cronies, Conrade, and they confess the crime to the local constable, Dogberry. Dogberry makes one of the henchmen confess again before Claudio, Leonato, Benedick, and all the others. 
.......Claudio repents and praises the “dead” Hero to the highest of heavens, then vows to do whatever penance Leonato imposes upon him. Leonato says Claudio can redeem himself by marrying someone else:
Be yet my nephew: my brother hath a daughter,
Almost the copy of my child that’s dead,
And she alone is heir to both of us:
Give her the right you should have given her cousin,
And so dies my revenge. (5. 1. 214-218)
.......Claudio embraces the offer. On the day of the wedding, Claudio discovers that the bride is really Hero, who swears that her virginity is intact. The friar then bids everyone to follow him to the chapel. On the way, Claudio produces a secret love sonnet that Benedick wrote to Beatrice. Hero produces another secret sonnet expressing Beatrice’s love for Benedick. Benedick and Beatrice exchange final insults while agreeing to marry, but Benedick has the last word, saying, “Peace! I will stop your mouth!” (5. 4. 104). Then he kisses her. While the couples marry, Don John escapes but is captured and brought back to await justice. Benedick says he will devise a fitting punishment for him, then order pipers to play. All ends joyfully with music and dancing.
Shakespeare Study Guide in Book Form

........Shakespeare: a Guide to the Complete Works is now available in hardback and paperback. It incorporates most of the information on this web site, including plot summaries of all the plays. It also gives dates and sources of each play, describes the setting and characters, discusses imagery, identifies themes, points out the climax, and provides historical background wherever necessary. In addition, it discusses and analyzes the sonnets, as well as other poems written by Shakespeare. 
........Among the many additional features of the book are essays, glossaries, explanations of versification and iambic pentameter, and a section on the Globe Theatre.
........Your purchase of this book will help maintain this web site as a free resource for teachers and students. You can order the book directly from the publisher's web site or from Amazon.com

The road to marriage is often lined with pitfalls and impediments. Benedick and Beatrice are hostile lovers before they warm to each other. Claudio doubts Hero's chastity before he is proven wrong.
People often wear masks to disguise their true feelings. For example, Benedick and Beatrice pretend to despise each other even though they love each other, and Don John pretends to be remorseful when all the while he is plotting revenge. 
All is not what it seems. Mistaken identities, false accusations, misleading conversations, and ironic outcomes all confound the principle characters. This theme is a variation of Theme 2. 
Love is NOT blind. Benedick well knows that Beatrice has a sharp tongue whose stings he must endure if he is to be her husband and live with her for decades to come. Likewise, Beatrice well knows Benedick's faults. Yet, before the end of play, they acknowledge their deep love for each other and marry.
Love IS blind. Hero ignores Claudio's faults. For example, she accepts Claudio as her husband even though only a short time before he so readily believed the slanders against her, called her a "rotten orange," and agreed to marry another in her place. Moreover, she never questions his motives—one of which, apparently, is to marry into money. (He had previously inquired whether Governor Leonato had a son and was told Hero was Leonato's only child and, thus, sole heir to his property.)
A woman's chastity is a treasure no man should possess except in marriage. The brouhaha over the false charge that Hero slept with a stranger underscores the high regard that the central characters in the play have for a virginal bride. 

.......The climax of a play or another narrative work, such as a short story or a novel, can be defined as (1) the turning point at which the conflict begins to resolve itself for better or worse, or as (2) the final and most exciting event in a series of events. The climax of Much Ado About Nothing occurs, according to the first definition, when Claudio rejects Hero on their wedding day in the mistaken belief that Hero has yielded to another man the day before. According to the second definition, the climax occurs in the final act when Beatrice and Benedick grudgingly acknowledge their love for each other and marry in the same ceremony uniting Claudio and Hero.
.......Much Ado About Nothing centers on the activities of two war heroes and the women they love. Shakespeare shifts back and forth between the stories of the couplesBenedick and Beatrice, Claudio and Herointerweaving them into a unified whole. The play observes the three unities devised by ancient Greek and Renaissance thinker and writers: (1) It takes place in one locale, (2) it lasts about a single day, and (3) it has one main story (although some view one or the other of the two love stories as a sub-plot). 
Prose vs Verse
.......The play is unusual for Shakespeare in that the characters speak in prose rather than verse most of the time. However, even when the passages are in prose, they contain the brilliant imagery typical of Shakespeare. The characters who speak most often in verse are Claudio and Hero, perhaps as part of an effort by Shakespeare to demonstrateand sometimes to mocktheir lofty feelings of love, and Leonato and Friar Francis, perhaps to express the formality of their roles as governor and priest, respectively.
Animal Imagery
.......Shakespeare often uses animal imagery in exchanges between Beatrice and Benedick and in references to them by other characters, perhaps to suggest the wildness of the love/hate relationship between the two. The following exchange between Beatrice and Benedick in Act I, Scene I, demonstrates this point:
..............BEATRICE.....I had rather hear my dog bark at a crow than a man swear he loves me.
..............BENEDICK.....God keep your ladyship still in that mind! so some gentleman or other
..............shall 'scape a predestinate scratched face.
..............BEATRICE.....Scratching could not make it worse, an 'twere such a face as yours were.
..............BENEDICK.....Well, you are a rare parrot-teacher.
..............BEATRICE.....A bird of my tongue is better than a beast of yours.
..............BENEDICK.....I would my horse had the speed of your tongue, and so good a continuer. (1. 1. 53-58) 
Benedick declares that if he ever succumbs to the pangs of love, he will be like a trapped animal: “If I do [submit to love], hang me in a bottle like a cat and shoot at me; and he that hits me, let him be clapped on the shoulder” (1. 1. 101). When Don Pedro tells him that even a “savage bull” (1. 1. 103) must in time yield to the yoke of love, Benedick says that
The savage bull may; but if ever the sensible Benedick bear it [the yoke], pluck off the bull's horns and set them in my forehead: and let me be vilely painted, and in such great letters as they write 'Here is good horse to hire,' let them signify under my sign 'Here you may see Benedick the married man.'  (1. 1. 104)
.......When Leonato and Antonio tell Beatrice that her tongue is too cursed to ever get a husband, Beatrice answers, “Too curst is more than curst: I shall lessen God’s sending that way; for it is said, ‘God sends a curst cow short horns’; but to a cow too curst he sends none” (2. 1. 12).
.......Benedick goes to extremes when he compares Beatrice to a harpy, a hideous winged monster in Greek mythology, telling Don Pedro that he will perform any service for him rather than be made to converse with Beatrice. The complete passage is worth repeating here for its use of hyperbole: 
Will your Grace command me any service to the world's end? I will go on the slightest errand now to the Antipodes2 that you can devise to send me on; I will fetch you a tooth-picker now from the furthest inch of Asia, bring you the length of Prester John’s3 foot, fetch you a hair off the great Cham’s4 beard, do you any embassage to the Pigmies, rather than hold three words’ conference with this harpy.5 You have no employment for me? (2. 1. 114) 
When Beatrice finally acknowledges her love for Benedick, she also implies that she is like an animal who needs to control her feral instincts: “Benedick, love on; I will requite thee, / Taming my wild heart to thy loving hand" (3. 1. 117-118). 
Metaphors of Fire
.......In spite of his outward disdain for Beatrice, Benedick inwardly burns with love for her, as the following passage suggests: “That I neither feel how she should be loved nor know how she should be worthy, is the opinion that fire cannot melt out of me: I will die in it at the stake” (1. 1. 94). Hero repeats this motif when she says it is better for Benedick to be consumed by the fire of his passion than to die from Beatrice’s tongue-lashings: 
Therefore let Benedick, like cover’d fire, 
Consume away in sighs, waste inwardly: 
It were a better death than die with mocks, 
Which is as bad as die with tickling. (3. 1. 83-86)
Dogberry's Malapropisms

.......Dogberry is an archetype for bumbling police officers in modern film and television comedies. Among movie and TV policemen who followed in his footsteps are Sheriff Buford T. Justice (Smoky and the Bandit), Inspector Clouseau (The Pink Panther), Maxwell Smart (Get Smart), and Barny Fife (Andy Griffith Show). However, Dogberry gets laughs mostly for verbal faux pas—in particular, malapropisms—rather than for slapstick. Examples of his malapropisms are the following underlined words: 

1. “You are thought here to be the most senseless [sensible] and fit man for the constable of the watch” (3. 3. 11).
2. “True, and they are to meddle [mingle] with none but the prince’s subjects. You shall also make no noise in the streets; for, for the ....watch to babble and to talk is most tolerable [intolerable] and not to be endured” (3. 3. 15). Note: The use of for, for after streets is as Shakespeare wrote the words. The first for is a conjunction and the second, a preposition. 
3. “Truly, I would not hang a dog by my will, much more [less] a man who hath any honesty in him” (3. 3. 25).
4. “Adieu: be vigitant, [vigilant] I beseech you” (3. 3. 36).
5. “Goodman Verges, sir, speaks a little off the matter: an old man, sir, and his wits are not so blunt [keen], as, God help, I would desire ....they were; but, in faith, honest as the skin between his brows” (3. 5. 9).
6. “Comparisons are odorous” [odious] (3. 5. 11).
7. “Our watch, sir, have indeed comprehended [apprehended] two a[u]spicious [suspicious] persons" (3. 5. 23).
8. “Is our whole dissembly [assembly] appeared?” (4. 2. 3).
9. “O villain! thou wilt be condemned into everlasting redemption [perdition] for this” (4. 2. 32).
Study Questions and Essay Topics

1.. In your opinion, why do Benedick and Beatrice at first refuse to acknowledge their love for each other?
2.. Who is the most admirable character in the play? Who is the least admirable? Explain your answers. 
3..Write an essay comparing and contrasting Benedick and Claudio.
4..Write an essay comparing and contrasting Beatrice and Hero
5..Write an essay that argues for or against the belief that love is blind.


1..publish: Announce, make it known.
2..Antipodes: Plural noun referring to two places on earth that are opposite each other, such as the North Pole and the South Pole.
3..Prester John: In legend, a Christian ruler of the East whom the crusaders expected to come to their aid in their fight against the Muslims.
4..Cham: Archaic title for Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan and his successors.
5..harpy: In Greek mythology, a hideoous winged monster.

Plays on DVD (or VHS) 

Play Director Actors
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Antony and Cleopatra BBC Production  Jane Lapotaire 
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As You Like It (1937)  Paul Czinner Henry Ainley, Felix Aylmer
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Coriolanus BBC Production  Alan Howard, Irene Worth
Cymbeline Elijah Moshinsky Claire Bloom, Richard Johnson, Helen Mirren
Gift Box: The Comedies BBC Production Various
Gift Box: The Histories BBC Production Various
Gift Box: The Tragedies BBC Production Various
Hamlet (1948)  Laurence Olivier Laurence Olivier, Jean Simmons
Hamlet (1990)  Kevin Kline Kevin Kline
Hamlet(1991)  Franco Zeffirelli Mel Gibson, Glenn Close
Hamlet (1996)  Kenneth Branagh Kenneth Branagh, 
Hamlet (2009) Gregory Doran David Tennant, Patrick Stewart, Penny Downie
Hamlet (1964)  John Gielgud, Bill Colleran Richard Burton, Hume Cronyn
Hamlet (1964)  Grigori Kozintsev Innokenti Smoktunovsky
Hamlet (2000)  Cambpell Scott, Eric Simonson Campbell Scott, Blair Brown
Henry V (1989)  Kenneth Branagh Kenneth Branaugh, Derek Jacobi
Henry V( 1946)  Laurence Olivier Leslie Banks, Felix Aylmer
Henry VI Part I BBC Production Peter Benson, Trevor Peacock
Henry VI Part II BBC Production  Not Listed
Henry VI Part III BBC Production  Not Listed
Henry VIII BBC Production John Stride, Claire Bloom, Julian Glover
Julius Caesar BBC Production  Richard Pasco, Keith Michell
Julius Caesar (1950)  David Bradley Charlton Heston
Julius Caesar (1953)  Joseph L. Mankiewicz Marlon Brando, James Mason
Julius Caesar (1970)  Stuart Burge Charlton Heston, Jason Robards
King John BBC Production  Not Listed
King Lear (1970) Grigori Kozintsev Yuri Yarvet
King Lear (1971) Peter Brook Cyril Cusack, Susan Engel
King Lear (1974)  Edwin Sherin James Earl Jones
King Lear (1976)  Tony Davenall Patrick Mower, Ann Lynn
King Lear (1984)  Michael Elliott Laurence Olivier, Colin Blakely
King Lear (1997)  Richard Eyre Ian Holm
Love's Labour's Lost (2000) Kenneth Branagh Kenneth Branagh, Alicia Silverstone 
Love's Labour's Lost BBC Production) Not Listed
Macbeth (1978)  Philip Casson Ian McKellen, Judy Dench
Macbeth BBC Production  Not Listed
The Merchant of Venice BBC Production Warren Mitchell, Gemma Jones
The Merchant of Venice (2001)  Christ Hunt, Trevor Nunn David Bamber, Peter De Jersey
The Merchant of Venice (1973) John Sichel Laurence Olivier, Joan Plowright
The Merry Wives of Windsor (1970)  Not Listed Leon Charles, Gloria Grahame
Midsummer Night's Dream (1996)  Adrian Noble Lindsay Duncan, Alex Jennings
A Midsummer Night's Dream  (1999) Michael Hoffman Kevin Kline, Michelle Pfeiffer
Much Ado About Nothing (1993)  Kenneth Branaugh Branaugh, Emma Thompson
Much Ado About Nothing (1973)  Nick Havinga  Sam Waterston, F. Murray Abraham
Othello (2005)  Janet Suzman Richard Haines, John Kaki
Othello (1990)  Trevor Nunn Ian McKellen, Michael Grandage
Othello (1965)  Stuart Burge Laurence Olivier, Frank Finlay
Othello (1955)  Orson Welles Orson Welles
Othello (1983)  Franklin Melton Peter MacLean, Bob Hoskins, Jenny Agutter
Ran  (1985) Japanese Version of King Lear  Akira Kurosawa Tatsuya Nakadai, Akira Terao
Richard II (2001)  John Farrell  Matte Osian, Kadina de Elejalde
Richard III (1912)  André Calmettes, James Keane  Robert Gemp, Frederick Warde
Richard III - Criterion Collection (1956)  Laurence Olivier Laurence Olivier, Ralph Richardson
Richard III (1995)  Richard Loncraine Ian McKellen, Annette Bening
Richard III BBC Production  Ron Cook, Brian Protheroe, Michael Byrne
Romeo and Juliet (1968)  Franco Zeffirelli Leonard Whiting, Olivia Hussey
Romeo and Juliet (1996)  Baz Luhrmann Leonardo DiCaprio, Claire Danes
Romeo and Juliet (1976)  Joan Kemp-Welch Christopher Neame, Ann Hasson
Romeo and Juliet BBC Production  John Gielgud, Rebecca Saire, Patrick Ryecart
The Taming of the Shrew Franco Zeffirelli Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton
The Taming of the Shrew Kirk Browning Raye Birk, Earl Boen, Ron Boussom
The Taming of The Shrew Not Listed Franklin Seales, Karen Austin 
The Tempest Paul Mazursky John Cassavetes, Gena Rowlands
The Tempest (1998) Jack Bender Peter Fonda, John Glover, Harold Perrineau,
Throne of Blood (1961) Macbeth in Japan  Akira Kurosawa Toshirô Mifune, Isuzu Yamada
Twelfth Night (1996)  Trevor Nunn Helena Bonham Carter
Twelfth Night BBC Production  Not Listed
The Two Gentlemen of Verona BBC Production  John Hudson, Joanne Pearce
The Winter's Tale  (2005)  Greg Doran Royal Shakespeare Company
The Winter's Tale BBC Production  Not Listed